Health Sciences Descriptors
This article presents the quadrilingual and structured DeCS vocabulary. DeCS is the Spanish and Portuguese acronym for Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud, or Health Sciences Descriptors. DeCS was created by BIREME for use in indexing articles from scientific journals, books, congress proceedings, technical reports, and other types of materials, as well as for searching and retrieving subjects from scientific literature in LILACS, MEDLINE and other data bases.
DeCS is part of the LILACS methodology and together with LIS - Health Information Locator - is an integrating component of the Virtual Health Library.
DeCS follows the tradition of the classification systems and their respective subject heading lists which have been transformed into specialized vocabularies without, however, changing the structures of the classification systems from which they originated. Its tree structure is well-grounded in the division of knowledge in decimal classes and subclasses respecting their conceptual and semantic relationships, and its terms are presented in a hybrid structure of pre- and post-coordination.
- 1 Definition
- 2 Origin
- 3 Purpose
- 4 Characteristics
- 5 2020 Edition
- 6 Previous Editions
- 7 Systems
- 8 Documents
- 9 Services
- 10 Processes
- 10.1 Format conversion
- 10.2 Insertion of translations into the vocabulary
- 10.3 Insertion of vocabulary changes
- 10.4 Consistency checks
- 11 See also
DeCS (Health Sciences Descriptors) is a controlled and structured vocabulary in four languages in the area of health.
In the late 1970s, BIREME requested authorization from the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), responsible for the MeSH vocabulary (Medical Subject Headings), to translate and adapt it to Spanish and Portuguese. As a result, in 1979 the first translation into Portuguese of MeSH 1978 was produced by BIREME and indexing with terms in that language began on the IMLA (Index Medicus Latino-Americano) database.
In 1982, the development of the Methodology for description and indexing of the IMLA base began. IMLA would then in 1985 be called LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature).
The completion of the first translation of MeSH 1981 into Spanish in 1984, carried out by the Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina and the Centro Nacional de Documentación e Información en Medicina (BINAME-CENDIM) of the Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de la República (UDELAR), Montevideo, Uruguay, also allowed the beginning of indexing in that language.
Finally, in 1986, with the inclusion of descriptors from the new Public Health category, developed by the Biblioteca-Centro de Informação de Referência em Saúde Pública of the Faculdade de Saúde Pública of the University of São Paulo (FSP/USP), the then trilingual vocabulary was renamed Health Sciences Descriptors, abbreviated by DeCS, and became part of the LILACS Methodology.
Be the standard language to facilitate access to scientific information of the Latin American and Caribbean Region (LA&C).
DeCS organizes the field of knowledge of health sciences and is used in indexing and retrieval of information sources of the Virtual Health Library (VHL). DeCS, maintained by BIREME, is an integrating component of the VHL and also functions as a conceptual map for navigation support for themes in the VHL information sources in Portuguese, Spanish, English, and French.
DeCS includes the MeSH vocabulary. This terminological compatibility and commitment to its annual updating and corresponding translation into Portuguese and Spanish allowed the effective cooperation with the project UMLS (Unified Medical Language System, NLM) since 1997. The UMLS project aims to develop a language of health information retrieval with features of a world-wide expert system.
This set of terminology represents the health sciences domain in the information sources of the NLM and VHL; it is an essential resource for the development and consolidation of tools for advanced search and navigation in information sources of the VHL, SciELO and associated networks as for example, in searching by lexical proximity by trigrams.
As of April 2020 DeCS has a total of 34.118 concepts and 662 thousand terms: 448.905 terms in English, Portuguese and Spanish Latin America, 85.498 terms in Spanish from Spain and 127.406 in French. These terms are organized in 16 categories common to MeSH and DeCS and four exclusively DeCS categories, which are: Science and Health, Homeopathy, Public Health and Health Surveillance. Read more
The BIREME team of DeCS/MeSH experts, together with experts from several other MeSH translation centers, participated between 2014 and 2019 in the translation of MeSH through the NLM online system called MeSH Translation Maintenance System (MTMS). As of version 2020, BIREME started using a new version of its own DeCS management and translation system, compatible with the MeSH DTD file format and with other BIREME processes, such as being multi-user, supporting multiple languages and multiple thesauri.
The current DeCS Search system was made available on September 11, 2020 on the occasion of the launch of the new DeCS portal and now has the same web address as the latter. It is an open web application to search for technical and scientific terminology in health in English, Spanish, Portuguese, and French.
The previous system remains active and can be consulted including the desired year, as in this example for 2020: http://decs2020.bvsalud.org/I/homepagei.htm
User Support System
The DeCS User Support System is a web-based software for user contact with the DeCS team.
Users are informed of BIREME's address, phone and fax numbers and, if desired, may fill in four fields: name, e-mail, subject and message body. After clicking the "send" button, an automatic message is shown saying the message was sent and the user may click on the "back" button to return to the DeCS homepage.
Projects Presented at Conferences
- PAHO Health Taxonomy with DeCS, Presentation 0 10 slides, at CRICS9, 2012 (Abstract)
- DeCS and the Portuguese Spelling Reform, Presentation - 10 slides, at CRICS9, 2012 (Abstract)
- New DeCS Webservices, Poster, at CRICS8, 2008
- DeCS, Presentation in Portuguese - 20 slides, at CRICS8, 2008
- DeCS, Presentation in English - 47 slides, at ICML9 - CRICS7, 2005
- DeCS, Presentation in Spanish - 47 slides, at ICML9 - CRICS7, 2005
- DeCS, Presentation in Portuguese - 47 slides, at ICML9 - CRICS7, 2005
- MeSH Suggestion page - For English suggestions fitting in MeSH categories, the link on the left will remit you to NLM's MeSH suggestion page.
- DeCS suggestion page - For Spanish or Portuguese suggestions fitting in MeSH categories and suggestions in any of DeCS's three languages fitting in the DeCS-exclusive categories, please fill out form at the link on the left and forward it attached to an e-mail to bir.decs [at] paho.org or fill out this form.
DeCS web pages
- DeCS Homepage
- About DeCS
- DeCS Search
- DeCS news
- DeCS User Support
- DeCS Services
- DeCS Search
- Direct Search
- Search via trigrams
- Alphanumeric Ruler
- Descriptor Types:
- Checktags: Type _P in the alphabetical index of the Search System to see the checktags (or limits).
- Publication Types: Type a _T in the alphabetical index of the Search System to see the publication types or access the tree index and navigate in the V category, Publication Characteristics, which contains all the publication types.
- Qualifiers: qualifiers are normally searched in the alphabetical index or in the "Search by Word" field and selecting the Exact Descriptor option button, and typing the entire term preceded by a slash /, because they start with a slash (eg /blood) in DeCS.
- For searching the two letter abbreviation of qualifiers, type Q = <the two letter abbreviation> in the "Search by Word" field and selecting the Exact Descriptor option button.
- In order to see all qualifiers in alphabetical order, see the alphabetical ruler. Searching the qualifier tree structure is done here.
- ID DeCS: In order to search for DeCS ID's, type MFN=<ID DeCS> in the "Search By word" field and select the "Exact Descriptor" option.
- ID MeSH: In order to search for MeSH ID's, type UID=<ID MeSH> in the "Search By word" field and select the "Exact Descriptor" option.
DeCS Web Services
- DeCS Service by tree number
- Service by concept name
- DeCS Concept occurrence in the VHL
- DeCS Web Services
- DeCS User Support
Procedures for MeSH Format Conversions
The NLM MeSH vocabulary exists in four formats: MARC, ASCII (or Elhill), XML, and RDF. Currently, the DeCS team downloads MeSH in ASCII and XML formats. The ASCII version is then converted to ISIS, for consistency checks. Beginning with the 2019 DeCS version, BIREME imports data directly from this XML for automatic updating DeCS with MeSH's fields. After DeCS is updated in three languages, subset extractions of DeCS or the entire DeCS conversion to other formats is then made possible.
ASCII (or Elhill) to ISIS
ISIS to txt
Txt to Excel or colon separated values (.csv)
ISIS to XML
ISIS to MARC
Insertion of translations into the vocabulary
Translations are inserted for new concepts or for concepts that perhaps lacked a scope note or indexing annotation.
Insertion of translation using the maintenance system
The insertion of translations using the maintenance system is done for English, for the Latin American Spanish variant, and for Portuguese contents.
Insertion of translations not using the maintenance system
The insertion of translations from outside of the maintenance system occurs for adding large amounts of new concepts, new hierarchical branches or categories, as well as fields related to translations and updates of the variant of Spanish from Spain, not foreseen in the current maintenance system.
Insertion of vocabulary changes
Changes are made using the maintenance system or not, just as it happens for translations of new concepts, terms and notes, when they are modified for some reason. Updates can be changes in the spelling of a word when its concept has changed or ceased to exist, switching the preferred term with one of its non-preferred terms, changes in the grammar rules of the language.
Within the maintenance system
- check when moving a term from an active field to a historical field
When a term is eliminated from a preferred term field or from an alternative term field, the system moves it automatically to the historical field. The historical field contains the following information: date it was removed from the vocabulary, the term, and which field it used to be in.
- terminological duplication check
When a term is placed in a preferred term field or in an alternative term field, the system checks for its existence in these fields and in the historical term field, for that language. If it already exists as a preferred or alternative term, the system alerts the user of this fact by informing the other ID. The user than needs to correct this duplication before he can complete the action.
- check when moving a term from a historical field to an active field
When a term is placed in a preferred term field or in an alternative term field, the system checks for its existence in these fields and in the historical term field, for that language. If it already exists as a historical term, the moment the user saves the change, the system eliminates the term from the historical field and informs the user of this change.
- subfield use check
Checks for the existence of the n subfield for notes fields, and the d subfield for the MeSH-suggested term field.
From outside of the maintenance system
Duplications are checked for terms and hierarchical codes. The DeCS vocabulary has neither terminological duplication in any of the three languages nor duplication between the languages. Hierarchical codes are also unique for each descriptor record.
check for excess or lack of MeSH terms
After the replaced MeSH descriptors are updated in DeCS and the new MeSH records are added at the end of the DeCS file, both files are compared. Three lists are produced in this check:
- Terms that exist in MeSH but are absent in DeCS (these are either terms that were not correctly updated or are new synonyms.)
- Terms that exist in DeCS but are absent in MeSH (these are either terms that were not correctly updated or are synonyms that are to be excluded from DeCS)
- Terms that exist in DeCS and MeSH, but that are in diferent IDs (these are synonyms that moved from one ID to another)
check for strange characters
See Related Descriptor check
Changes in or elimination of a descriptor affects the descriptors that appear in the "See related" field. For this reason, the descriptors in this field are checked for their existence as descriptors and a list is produced for correction.
Suggested MeSH Descriptor check
The same reasoning above applies to this field, which exists in non-MeSH concepts, i.e., from the HP, SH, SP and VS categories.
The following fields are also checked for its compatibility with MeSH: The MeSH Unique Identifier, Pre-explosion, Tree node allowed, Entry combination and New MeSH synonyms subfield.
- Document Indexing with DeCS
- LILACS Methodology
- NLM Online Indexing Course - Medline Indexing: Online Training Course/Online Indexing Training Module of the Bibliographic Services Division. More up-to-date than the above pages of NLM's indexing manual.
- Using this course
- The Indexing Process
- IM & NIM terms
- Depth & Non-Depth Indexing
- Check tags
- MeSH Headings and Trees
- Subheadings (Qualifiers)
- Cat. A – Anatomy
- Cat. B – Organisms
- Cat. C – Indexing principles for Category C - Diseases
- Cat. D – Indexing principles for Category D - Chemicals and Drugs
- Cat. E – Indexing principles for Category E - Techniques and Equipment
- Cat. F – Indexing principles for Category F - Psychiatry and Psychology
- Cat. G – Indexing principles for Category G Phenomena and Processes
- Cat. H – Indexing principles for Category H - Natural Science Disciplines and Health Occupations
- Cat. I – Indexing principles for Category I - Education and Social Sciences
- Cat. J – Indexing principles for Category J - Technology, Food and Beverages, and Non-Medical Public and Private Facilities
- Cat. K – Indexing principles for Category K - Humanities
- Cat. L – Indexing principles for Category L - Information Science
- Cat M – Indexing principles for Category M - Persons
- Cat N – Indexing principles for Category N - Health Care
- Cat V – Category V - Publication Characteristics
- Cat Z – Indexing principles for Category Z - Geographic Locations
- Gene indexing